GO Projects

The following areas of biology are the focus of ontology development and annotation in the Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC). Some of these projects are currently underway and we welcome your feedback and contributions. Please reach the GOC using our "Contact us" form.

Biological Process Ontology Guidelines

A biological process is a recognized series of events or molecular functions. A process is a collection of molecular events with a defined beginning and end. Mutant phenotypes often reflect disruptions in biological processes.

General Considerations

Beginning and end

Every process should have a discrete beginning and end, and these should be clearly stated in the process term definition.

Collections of processes

GO Annotation Conventions

Annotation Conventions

This page contains guidelines which apply to all annotation methods and are particularly useful for manual literature-based annotation. More information on annotation can be found in the introduction to GO Annotation Policies and Guidelines and the GO Annotation Standard Operating Procedures.

Cellular Component Ontology Guidelines

The cellular component ontology describes locations, at the levels of subcellular structures and macromolecular complexes. Examples of cellular components include 'nuclear inner membrane', with the synonym 'inner envelope', and the 'ubiquitin ligase complex', with several subtypes of these complexes represented.

Submitting Term Suggestions to GO

There are a number of ways to submit requests for new ontology terms for GO. Here we outline information on how to submit a request using each option. A helpful guide to deciding which avenue for requests best fits your needs is available on the page 'Contributing to the Ontology'.

Species-Specific Terms

Handling Species Specificity

One of the biggest problems for a controlled vocabulary is choosing term names and definitions that will unambiguously identify a component, function or process. If a word or phrase refers to different entities or processes depending upon the organism, subclasses are created based on differentiating characteristics, such structure, physical composition or order of subprocesses, rather than by identifying the taxonomic group in which the component or process occurs.