The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. Founded in 1998, the project began as a collaboration between three model organism databases, FlyBase (Drosophila), the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) and the Mouse Genome Database (MGD). The GO Consortium (GOC) has since grown to incorporate many databases, including several of the world's major repositories for plant, animal, and microbial genomes. The GO Contributors page lists all member organizations.
Annotation data is submitted to the GO Consortium in the form of Gene Association Format, or GAFs. This guide lays out the format specifications for GAF 2.0; for the older GAF 1.0 file syntax, please see the GAF 1.0 file format guide.
Please see the information on the changes in GAF 2.0.
The GO Consortium coordinated an effort to maximize and optimize GO annotations for a large and representative set of key genomes, known as 'reference genomes'. The Reference Genome Annotation Project aimed to completely annotate twelve reference genomes, producing a resource that may effectively seed automatic annotation efforts of other genomes.
The IC evidence code is to be used for those cases where an annotation is not supported by any direct evidence, but can be reasonably inferred by a curator from other GO annotations, for which evidence is available.
Covers physical interactions between the entity of interest and another molecule (such as a protein, ion or complex). IPI can be thought of as a type of IDA, where the actual binding partner or target can be specified, using "with" in the with/from field.
The gene association files submitted by GO Consortium members are shown in the tables below. Files are in the GO annotation file format and are compressed using the UNIX gzip utility. Please see the appropriate README file for further details on the annotation set. Any errors or omissions in annotations should be reported by writing to the GO helpdesk.